Characteristic of this movement is that a poem has a theme usually broad, simple, and obvious, even tending toward the proverbial, but usually a theme of some importance, humanly speaking; a feeling restrained to the minimum required by the subject; a rhetoric restrained to a similar minimum, the poet being interested in his rhetoric as a means of stating his matter as economically as possible, and not, as are the Petrarchans, in the pleasures of rhetoric for its own sake.
The success of this venture was immediate, and the next thirty years saw a score of theatrical companies, at least seven regular theaters, and a dozen or more inn yards permanently fitted for the giving of plays,--all established in the city and its immediate suburbs.
A third factor is style. The effect of such rhythmical delivery of the words was to lift the mood of the whole theatre onto the level of religious worship. As these characters became well known everywhere, dramatists could rely on their audience to respond to them in predictable fashion.
The Italian plan of writing sonnets in sequences was adopted by Spenser also. Indeed, plays written in prose dialogue were at one time comparatively rare, and then associated essentially with the comic stage. Is a play in part the expectation an audience brings to the theatre, or is it the real response to what is seen and heard?
The Lake Poets and other Romanticsat the beginning of the 19th century, were well-read in Renaissance poetry.
In these plays, there were bookkeepers that acted as the narrators of these plays and they would introduce the actors and the different roles they played. Naturally there is a terrible row when the two irate old women meet and misunderstand each other.
In Bunrakuthe classical puppet theatre of Japanthe elocutionary art of a chanted narration and the manipulative skill with the dolls diminished the emphasis on the script except in the work of the 17th-century master Chikamatsu Monzaemonwho enjoyed a creative freedom in writing for puppets rather than for the actors of Kabuki.
Today, of course, these plays are considered among the greatest literary works of all time. While Gammer chases the cat the family needle is lost, a veritable calamity in those days.
The linguist and lexicographer John Florio —whose father was Italian, was a royal language tutor at the Court of James Iand a possible friend and influence on William Shakespearehad brought much of the Italian language and culture to England.
This revival of interest was instrumental in the development of the new drama, which was then beginning to make apart from the old mystery and miracle plays of the Middle Ages.
Higher classes flaunted their wealth and power through the appearance of clothing, however, actors were the only exception. No originality in plot or treatment was possible, therefore; the only variety was in new songs and jokes, and in the pranks of the devil.
The fabrics within a playhouse would indicate the wealth of the company itself. All our early dramatists are worthy of study for the part they played in the development of the drama; but we can here consider only one, the most typical of all, whose best work is often ranked with that of Shakespeare.
The study of Greek drama demonstrates how the ritual function of theatre shapes both play and performance. This plays have lent a glory to Elizabethan drama.
That represented a complete revolution in theatre. The story of "Gorboduc" is taken from the early annals of Britain and recalls the story used by Shakespeare in King Lear. The whole household is turned upside down, and the neighbors are dragged into the affair. On the other hand, the ceremonious temple ritual of the early Noh drama of Japan was performed at religious festivals only for the feudal aristocracy.
But even so, most of the theatre writers of Elizabethan England have not been equalled during the four centuries since that time. Individual theatre descriptions give additional information about their construction, such as flint stones being used to build the Swan.
The Elizabethan middle classes and their religious spokespeople thought the violence and inappropriate behavior seen in the plays of Marlowe and Shakespeare would twist the minds and behavior of the population, leading them to violence and vice.
It is not surprising that they selected their themes from every Renaissance problem of order and authority, of passion and reason, of good and evil and explored every comic attitude to people and society with unsurpassed vigour and vision.
They often worked together, probably as Shakespeare worked with Marlowe and Fletcher, either in revising old plays or in creating new ones.An Elizabethan theatre – home to Elizabethan drama The Renaissance flowered right across Europe but had different emphases in the different European cultures – it was religion and philosophy in Germany, for example; art, architecture and sculpture in Italy.
Sep 17, · The Elizabethan Age () is generally regarded as the greatest in the history of English literature. Historically, we note in this age the tremendous impetus received from the renaissance, reformation, and from the exploration of the billsimas.com: English Literature.
Elizabethan Drama. Tragicomedy breathed its first in early s in the Elizabethan drama. The audience loved a good tragedy.
And who better than the most eminent of all playwrights, William Shakespeare, to deliver a heart wrenching drama. Titus Andronicus, Othello. The arts, including literature, and nationalism thrived during the Elizabethan Age. This was the time of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and of Shakespeare.
The Elizabethan Age can be identified by the following characteristics: This was a period of great literary creativity and prolific writing. Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance.
All plays depend upon a general agreement by all participants—author, actors, and audience—to accept the operation of theatre and the conventions associated with it, just as players. During the Elizabethan Age, the drama made a swift & wonderful leap into maturity.
The drama reached the splendid perfection in the hands of Shakespeare & Ben Jonson, though in the concluding part of the age, particularly in Jacobean Age, there was a decline of drama standards.Download