For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino. As a final example, fecundity decreases with lifespan, so long-lived kinds like elephants have fewer young in total than short-lived kinds like mice.
He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things"from what is spontaneous". It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed.
Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically,  and biology forms a large part of his writings. To a modern biologist, the explanation, not available to Aristotle, is convergent evolution. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole i.
In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over. The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. History of optics Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problemsbook Thus the material cause of a table is wood.
Those with blood were divided into the live-bearing mammalsand the egg-laying birdsreptilesfish. Scala naturae Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta the yolk saclike a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.
This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition. His system had eleven grades of animal, from highest potential to lowest, expressed in their form at birth: He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.
Brood size decreases with adult body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young usually just one per brood than a mouse. Accident philosophy According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity.
He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus. Animals came above plantsand these in turn were above minerals.
History of geology Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations. Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.
He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos.
Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century.
Those without blood were insects, crustacea non-shelled — cephalopods, and shelled and the hard-shelled molluscs bivalves and gastropods.Macbeth: A Tragic Hero - Tragic heroes, who destined for a serious downfall, are the protagonist of a dramatic tragedy.
A tragic hero is usually a great hero, who gets the most respect from other people; on the other hand, a tragic hero can also lose everything he gained because of his mistakes.
Aristotle (/ ˈ ær ɪ ˌ s t ɒ t əl /; Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; – BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical billsimas.com with Plato, Aristotle is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his.
The Greek Tragedy of Oedipus the King - A Greek tragedy is one with a tragic outcome that is an inevitable result of the key character's personal flaws.Download